Tuesday, December 24, 2013

"Орчуулгын онол, дадлага" хичээлийн даалгавар



          

The UB POST is Mongolia’s only independent English weekly newspaper, one of five newspapers issued by Mongol News media group, the first private company in the media sector in the country. It was founded in May 1996.
The UB POST is one of two English weeklies in Mongolia, the other being run by a Government press agency, Montsame. There are no daily English newspapers in Mongolia. The UB POST publishes news and information about a rapidly changing and developing Mongolia, with ever-expanding foreign relations; a country on the way to a stronger democracy.
It is a four-page broadsheet:
  • Reports about the cover story and major news of the week on page1.
  • Page 2 covers economic, political and domestic news.
  • Page 3 features opinion and comment pieces, features and Letters to the  Editors.
  • Page 4 is dedicated to news and stories on culture, science, the arts, sports and history of Mongolia.
The newspaper has a small staff, consisting of two Mongolian journalists, Mongolian and English editors and a graphic-designer.
The Post has subscribers from over 30 countries around the world and a large number of annual subscribers in Mongolia representing interested organizations and individuals.
Annual subscription costs U.S. $78 (52 issues). To subscribe, send cheques to Trade and Development Bank, account number 21221131 in the name of Mongol News Company.
  • $20.00 for 3 months
  • $39.00 for 6 months
  • $78.00 for 12months
Advertisement of any size is available in the newspaper.
Address:
The UB POST Independent newspaper
Mongol News Company
Ikh Toiruu-20,
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Telephone: +976-11-352470 o. 352462
Fax: +976-11-352480 o. 352495
eMail:
ubpost@yahoo.com
Dear Student Teachers




As someone who finished their student teaching last fall, and is starting their first year as a lead teacher at the elementary level, and is currently feeling very overwhelmed and lost / confused, here is some advice for you;
1)    Ask a lot of questions, even the dumb ones. If you don’t know what an acronym  stands for, ask! If you don’t know how to handle a situation with a difficult student, ask! If you aren’t sure how to word something into a parent, ask! Also ask why teachers chose to have the structures and procedures that they do, like the organizational systems, the chairs, tables rather than desks, the decorative aspects of the classroom. I wish I had asked a lot more questions, especially those concerning balancing personal life / work. Also ask where they buy the things that they have! That will save you a lot of time from spending hours going to store to store the weekend before you start teaching. Also figure out how they were able to adhere the things they have, like if they’re using Velcro, magnetic tape, mounting tap, to hang up posters, attach name tags, etc.
2)    Take criticism in stride. Don’t feel like you’re being too harshly criticized or feel like your mentor is unfairly judging your teaching. And don’t get pouty when they try to offer you constructive feedback; your mentor is there to support you to become a better teacher! You will appreciate that they were honest and upfront with you, rather than telling you what you wanted to hear.
3)    You’re supposed to be bad at teaching in the beginning. You’ve never done it before, and no one is good at teaching when they first get started. The sooner you come to terms with how bad you are, the sooner you can get better at it. Reflection is the key to getting better at teaching.
4)    Take a multi-vitamin, eat lunch, and get a lot of rest. If this is your first time being around kids for an extended period of time, you will get sick a lot. I was sick every other week.
5)    Talk to other staff in your school, and appreciate the community / support that you have, especially among your classmates. If you are hired at a school like mine, you will miss gripe sessions with people who are in similar situations and who understand what it is like to be a new teacher who has little idea of what they are doing. And if you are student teaching with other student teachers, it is very nice to have them as a support system, but you will learn more if you talk to actual in-service teachers.
6)    Photocopy and take pictures of everything your mentor is doing, especially of routines that are in place. I didn’t realize that when I would be starting as a new teacher, that I would be starting from scratch. I very wrongly assumed that I would remember the first day of school games, activities, and procedures we went over, but I didn’t, and documenting these things would have saved me a lot of time googling.

Over 400 renters suffer losses in the Narantuul market fire
On August 23, a fire broke out in the food market at Narantuul market. One person died at the scene, and many others suffered the loss of their goods.  With an order from the General Police Department’s chief, a working group led by Chief of the Grave Offence Investigation Division of the State Investigation Authority, E.Idertsog, was formed and has since been collecting statements from victims and suspects.
According to the working group, the collection of statements has finished and over 400 people have been identified as renters.
The investigation of the fire and calculation of total financial losses is still underway. The cause of the fire is still undetermined. Investigators took several samples from the scene of the fire and submitted them for thorough research by specialists.
Nine people have been identified as suspects responsible for the fire, and last week, four people had been detained but eventually released on bail. These four were security guards, a custodian and electrical repairman working at the market and were scheduled for the night shift when the accident occurred. During the investigation, they were found to be under the influence of alcohol on the night of the fire and unable to fulfill their duties which resulted in great losses.
The investigation also revealed that prior to the August 23rd fire, two to three fires had broken out at the market but were not reported by market officials.
The victims of the fire claimed that they would not demand immediate compensation when they met with Narantuul market owner, Sh.Saikhansambuu. Instead they said, “We are requesting to have the new food market built as quickly as possible, as it is our source of income. We have to resume our sales first and foremost. We will talk about compensation after this.”
Sh.Saikhansambuu said he agreed with their request wholeheartedly, but claims that related organizations have not approved the construction of a new food market.



Lecture: 1                              
Arts of translation

·         Secret history of Mongolia- Монголын нууц товчоо
·         Altaic family- Алтай язгуурын хэл
·         Old Mongolian script- хуучин Монгол бичиг 
·         Literary works- утга зохиолын бүтээл
·         Rope script- олсон бичээс                 
·         Orthography- зөв бичих зүй
·         Square script- дөрвөлжин бичиг    
·         Clear letter- тод үсэг
·         AD- Anna Domini- манай эриний
·         Cyrillic letter- Кирилл үсэг
·         Vagindra- Вагиндрагийн үсэг
·         Ideogram letter- дүрс үсэг
What is translation?
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text.

‘’Translation’’ means phileo and logos. In Greek, ‘’I like words’’
We can realize its meaning ‘’I like words’’ meaning in English.
Main principle of translation it’s just to express right and true. Mongolian literary works of the early periods were written in old Mongolian script. Most outstanding among them is the secret history of Mongolian. Translation and studies of this work has been undertaking by Mongolian and other countries and scholars. This is the art and history of Mongolian. Mongolian language belongs to the Altaic family of languages together with Turkish, Manchurian, Tungus, Japanese and Koreans. Today about eight million people speak in the world Mongolian.
            Thousand years ago people drew and painted some shapes and figures to understand and communicate each one. Because no script. Mongols tied rope to enter into relations with each other it’s the rope script.
            Khunnu Empire used Nangiad script that was formed in part by borrowing from Khanz script. Kidan Empire used grand and little script in AD nine. The grand script was abbreviated in AD nine. To create the little script Uigur alphabet was formed in part by borrow from Sogdian.  Its roots are found in the Syriac script. Uigar Mongolian script has Aramaic origin. It has 24 letters, there are 5 vowels and 19 consonants. It says it’s the script that was used the longest periods. Ayush invented Aligadi script to mark. A great scholar monk Pagva created the ‘’Square’’ script by the decree of King khubilai. Its figure was like Tibetan and it was written in vertical or standing position as Uigur script.
                 Zayabandid Namkhaijamts created the ‘’Tod’’ script or origin script. He was Oirdian. It was one of the Mongolian ethnic groups High ranked Zanabazar invented an alphabet called, Soyombo. It has 96 letters. It first ideogram letter was accepted as the countries national emblem and depicted on the national flag in 1994. Buriadian scholar Agvaandorj invented the Vagindra or Buriadian clear script in 1905.
 Vagindra means Agvaan in Sanskrit is an ancient and sacred language of the Hindus. In 1930’s Natsagdorj and some scholars wrote the brief orthographical or spelling rules of Latin alphabet. They proposed to use but the Cyrillic was created and imposed as the official script in 1941 because of the pronunciation. It’s written and reads from left to right.

Lecture: 2
Translation forms
·         Language family- хэлний төрөл
·         Cognate language – төрөл хэл
·         Non- Cognate language- төрөл бус хэл
·         Taboo- нэр цээрлэх ёс
·         Local dialect – нутгийн аялгуу
·         Science signs – шинжлэх ухааны тэмдэгт
There are 4 forms of translation
1.    Language families
2.    Literary language genres to local dialect
3.    All languages to modern language
4.    Human languages to science signs

1. Language Families

For example; Altaic Family includes; Mongolian, Turkish, Manchurian Tungus, Yakut, Japanese and Korean
So, Mongolian and English languages are Non-Cognate language.

2. Literary language genres to local dialect
Literary language is included local dialects. Words from various Mongolian dialects are also use in common Mongolian language. These words have become acceptable in literary Mongolian language. And they are widely known but should still be tracked back the dialect origin.
Local dialect is the form of a language spoken in a certain area or district; subordinate variety of a language.
For example; Girl is Oirat. Basgan is Buriad, Sevger
Some people mostly in the country don’t like to use certain words such as wolf, snake, to die and pee which are taboo for them.
A taboo is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either too sacred or too accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake, under threat of supernatural punishment.
For example: wolf- boohoi, grey of steppe, hairhan,                                                                       snake- long worm, wind,                                                                                                                        to die- expire, pass away, pass on, breath your last breath, depart this life, go to meet your maker, give up the ghost, end, run out                                                                                                     pee- see a horse

3. All languages to modern language
Let’s see some words from old Mongolian script to Syrillic.
ᠭᠡᠤᠬᠡᠡ  ᠰᠢᠬᠢᠷ ᠯᠢᠩᠪᠥ ᠸᠴᠢᠷ ᠋᠂ ᠨᠢᠯᠪᠥᠰᠥ᠂ ᠬᠬᠢᠷ ᠬᠤᠬᠡᠤᠡ ᠴᠢᠨᠣ ᠲᠡᠤᠬᠡ ᠰᠢᠷᠡᠭᠡ ᠰᠢᠷᠤᠢ ᠳᠡᠯᠡᠬᠡᠢ ᠬᠢᠮᠤᠰᠤ ᠬᠤᠳᠳᠤᠬ᠂᠂᠂ᠬᠡᠬᠥ ᠮᠡᠲᠤ
4. Human language to science signs

Hydrogen- H2O      Oxygen- O2     Calcium- Ca    Kali- K     Ferrum- Fe     Aluminium- Al Carbonate- C        Natrium- Na          Zink- Zn            Cuprum- Cu         Flouride- F   Plumbum- Pb           Phosphorite- P          Aurum- Au (gold)         Argentum- Ar (silver)  Nitrogen- N (Azote)          Manganese- Mn        Silicium- Si …etc                               




Lecture:3
Translation kinds

·         Receptor language- орчуулж буй хэл
·         Source language \ text – орчуулагдаж буй хэл, текст
·         Oral translation- аман орчуулга
·         Written translation- бичгийн орчуулга
·         Target language- зорилтот хэл
There are two kinds of translation each one is divided into two groups.
1.    Writing
2.    Oral
Writing is also divided into two forms. 
1.    Written translation from written text.
2.    Written translation from oral text.
Oral is also divided into two forms.
1.    Oral translation from oral text
2.    Oral translation from written text
Good theory is based on information gained from practice. Good practice is based on carefully worked out theory. Translation is a process based on the theory that is possible to abstract the meaning of a text from its forms. And reproduce that meaning with the very different forms of a second language.
                                            
                                        Subtitle of Translation Task

It’s translation process.
It means we need two languages and one text. Translation studies borrows much from the different fields of studies that support translation this include comparative literature, computer science, history, linguistics, philology, philosophy and so one.
Translation is the interpreting of the meaning of a text and the subsequent production of an equivalent text likewise called a translation that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translation is called the source text and the language that is to be translated into is called target language. The final product is sometimes called the target text.
Target language, the source language, the ‘’to be translated language’’ are the same meaning.
Translation stages;
1.    Read twice from three times and listen carefully
2.    Realize the main meaning and find the content
3.    Translate
4.    Do examination.
Translator must do research, analyze methods of languages; explanation, language styles, and content of literature and works. These are; recognize correctly each structure of words, think correctly a meaning of poly semantic. And know that transformed and depicted meaning of proverbs and phrases. 
Translation stages are used to provide varying degrees of movement to mounted optical components for a range of optical applications. Translation stages are mounting surfaces that feature movement capabilities across one or more axes. Translation stages are used a number of different methods to achieve movement including ball bearings, rack and pinion, crossed roller, or lead screw.  Translation stages allow optical components to be easily moved or repositioned without the need for removal or recalibration. Translation stages are ideal choices for use in a number of optical systems. Scholar Edmund Optics offers a wide range of translation stages suited for many optical needs. Translation stages are key additions to any optical system that requires fast or precise movement of components. Some translation stages may also be linked together to provide additional axes of movement beyond their individual capabilities for increased versatility. A selection of mounting adapters is also available for integrating with additional types of work surfaces.
                                 

Lecture:4
Context and content in translation

Context has similar meaning to content. In works such as literary and written works science fiction of literature, play, composition and folklores word meaning is essential to the context and content. The reason why it’s, the word meaning critical to the context and content is that one word has several meanings. It’s so essential for us to choose and use the correct word and true meaning.
Because, the different meanings from context and content. In this reason we should use and choose a word and its meaning. After reading carefully the whole work. Or realizing the content which word to choose and use is that belongs to the close sentence, paragraphs and the whole work. On way o another we must do it and realize it’s meaning from the context. Finally, it’s also a few words. We can say that lexicology is we important.
 A source text is a text from which info or ideas derived. /find the origin word/. This science is etymology in translation. A source text is the original text that is to be translated into another language.

Back-translation

A "back-translation" is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text.
Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a check on the accuracy of the original translation, much as the accuracy of a mathematical operation is sometimes checked by reversing the operation. But while useful as approximate checks, the results of such reverse operations are not always precisely reliable. Back-translation must in general be less accurate than back-calculation because linguistic symbols (words) are often ambiguous, whereas mathematical symbols are intentionally unequivocal.
In the context of machine translation, a back-translation is also called a "round-trip translation."
When translations are produced of material used in medical clinical trials, such as informed-consent forms, a back-translation is often required by the ethics committee or institutional review board.
Back translator Mark Twain provided humorously telling evidence for the frequent unreliability of back-translation when he issued his own back-translation of a French translation of his short story, “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County". He published his back-translation in a single 1903 volume together with his English-language original, the French translation, and a "Private History of the 'Jumping Frog' Story". The latter included a synopsized adaptation of his story that Twain stated had appeared, unattributed to Twain, in a Professor Sidgwick’s Greek Prose Composition (p. 116) under the title, “The Athenian and the Frog”; the adaptation had for a time been taken for an independent ancient Greek precursor to Twain's "Jumping Frog" story.


 About translator

A competent translator shows the following attributes
·         a very good knowledge of the language, written and spoken, from which he is translating (the source language);
·         an excellent command of the language into which he is translating (the target language)
·         familiarity with the subject matter of the text being translated;
·         a profound understanding of the etymological and idiomatic correlates between the two languages; and
·         a finely tuned sense of when to meta-phrase ("translate literally") and when to paraphrase, so as to assure true rather than spurious equivalents between the source- and target-language texts.
A competent translator is not only bilingual but bicultural. A language is not merely a collection of words and of rules of grammar and syntax for generating sentences, but also a vast interconnecting system of connotations and cultural references whose mastery, writes linguist Mario Pei, "comes close to being a lifetime job."
The translator's role in relation to a text has been compared to that of an artist, e.g., a musician or actor, who interprets a work of art. Translation, like other arts, inescapably involves choice, and choice implies interpretation.
A translator may render only parts of the original text, provided he indicates that this is what he is doing. But a translator should not assume the role of censor and surreptitiously delete or bowdlerize passages merely to please a political or moral interest. Translation has served as a school of writing for many authors. Translators, including monks who spread Buddhist texts in East Asia, and the early modern European translators of the Bible, in the course of their work have shaped the very languages into which they have translated. They have acted as bridges for conveying knowledge between cultures; and along with ideas, they have imported from the source languages, into their own languages, loanwords and calques of grammatical structures, idioms and vocabulary.

Lecture: 5
Vocabulary

A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person. A vocabulary usually develops with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge. Acquiring an extensive vocabulary is one of the largest challenges in learning a second language. The language lexicology is all words of the language. Language vocabulary of important unit is the words, so the words are very important. Vocabulary studies, semantics, terminology, onomastics, word-formation, etymology, phraseology and lexicography are studies lexicology. These branches are related to each other. The language includes; phonetics structure, grammatical building, lexicology and basic words stock.
No vocabulary, no language. But vocabulary can’t be language in one. From language structure, vocabulary is part of quite easily changing or transforming It is necessary for new words and expressions from vocabulary that includes country and social development, manufacture, agriculture, trade and transport of increasing and sciences of some branches luckiness… etc. Some words of vocabulary are not used commonly, so they are archaism. And vocabulary studies that the homonym, meaning of words, poly semantic using for metaphor, synonym, antonym, vocabulary words. These are foreign word, etymology, archaism, neologism, local dialects, vulgarism, word colloquial expressions, phraseology and lexicography and terminology.
The knowledge of the words deriving from the 2000 most frequent English words provides a comprehension of 95% of word use. The figures look even better than this if we want to cover the words we come across in an informally spoken context. Then the 2000 most common words would cover 100% of the vocabulary. More recent work contests this, concluding that knowledge of 5000 word families is necessary for 95% word coverage. Learning vocabulary is one of the first steps of learning a second language, yet a learner never finishes vocabulary acquisition. Whether in one’s native language or a second language, the acquisition of new vocabulary is a continual process. Many methods can help one acquire new vocabulary.

Lecture: 6
                                            Antonyms of translation

An antonym is one of a pair of words with opposite meanings. In another word, antonym is a word that expresses a meaning opposed to the meaning of another word, in which case the two words are antonyms of each other; ‘’to him the antonym of ‘’gay’’ was ‘’depressed’’.
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
There are two classifications in the antonyms.
1.    Direct antonym – antonyms that are commonly associated (e.g., ‘’wet and dry’’)
2.    Indirect antonym - antonyms whose opposition is mediated (e.g., the antonym of ‘’wet’’ and ‘’parched’’ is mediated by the similarity of ‘’parched’’ to ‘’dry’’)
Equivalent word, synonym- two words that can be interchanged in a context are said to be synonymous relative to that context.

 Each word in the pair is the antithesis of the other. A word may have more than one antonym. There are three categories of antonyms identified by the nature of the relationship between the opposed meanings.

In lexical semantics, opposites are words that lie in an inherently incompatible binary relationship as in the opposite pairs big : small, long : short, and precede : follow. The notion of incompatibility here refers to the fact that one word in an opposite pair entails that it is not the other pair member. For example, something that is long entails that it is not short. It is referred to as a 'binary' relationship because there are two members in a set of opposites. The relationship between opposites is known as opposition. A member of a pair of opposites can generally be determined by the question What is the opposite of  X ?
The term antonym (and the related antonymy) is commonly taken to be synonymous with opposite, but antonym also has other more restricted meanings. Graded (or gradable) antonyms are word pairs whose meanings are opposite and which lie on a continuous spectrum (hot, cold). Complementary antonyms are word pairs whose meanings are opposite but whose meanings do not lie on a continuous spectrum (push, pull). Relational antonyms are word pairs where opposite makes sense only in the context of the relationship between the two meanings (teacher, pupil). These more restricted meanings may not apply in all scholarly contexts, with Lyons (1968, 1977) defining antonym to mean gradable antonyms, and Crystal (2003) warns that antonymy and antonym should be regarded with care.
Antonyms meaning is several each other.  For instance;
The giving person is straightened the back
The taking person is bends down
The old men think like was young themselves.
Instead witness live people of being die men’ cushion.
v  It is called human or animals of activity and formation.
       For example; health-illness    bear-die     war-peace
v  Words related to natural phenomenon. For/ e;  Dark- light, dry up- become rainy
v  These are synonyms that called the time. For instance;  Before- after , early – late, first- last, past- future, yesterday- tomorrow, night- day…etc
v  These are synonyms that called directions or places. For instance;   South- north,  away- here, west- east, behind- in front of, out- in,  on- under, far- near….etc          
v  These are synonyms that expressed in adjectives. For instance; sharp-dull, tasty- salty, beautiful- awful, intelligent- unintelligent, friendly- unfriendly…etc
v  In some side of social phenomenon For instance; friend- enemy, war-peace…etc


Lecture; 6 (continue)
                                                Synonyms of translation

The languages’ some unit are more synonym each other. Its pronunciation is several but meaning is almost same. For example; ‘’large and big’’. These words’ meaning is the same and pronunciation is several. But it isn’t exactly same. For instance; it is finish, complete, graduate, full, end and so one. Same meanings words are very much in the language. Synonyms discovers in verbs or adjectives.  Synonyms are words with the same or similar meanings. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. Likewise, if we talk about a long time or an extended time, long and extended become synonyms. In the figurative sense, two words are often said to be synonymous if they have the same connotation:
Synonyms can be any part of speech (such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs or prepositions), as long as both words are the same part of speech. Here are more examples of English synonyms:
  • Verb
    • "buy" and "purchase"
  • Adjective
    • "big" and "large"
  • Adverb
    • "quickly" and "speedily"
  • Preposition
    • "on" and "upon"
 Taboo and its real name are synonym.
v  Snake- long worm
v  Wolf- steppe grey colourful animal
Some are discover in local dialect.
v  Home – urguu /Tsakhar/
v  Security- onis /Tsakhar/
v  Carriage – kham tereg /Uzemchin/
Synonyms or related words for this sense of professional
·         Words used to describe jobs and work; antisocial, articled, assistant, associate, casual, ceremonial, clerical, collaborative, collegiate and cooperative
·         Skillful and able; street, transliterate, able, capable, professional, brilliant, better, good and born
·         Words used to describe workers; acting , auxiliary, blue- collar, budding, casual, charted, creative, deputy and designate
·         Words used to describe workers; anti- social, articled, assistant, associate and casual
·         General words relating to jobs and work; appointment, background, business, call, calling, career, career structure, collaboration

Profession
work
Occupation

Chance
Opportunity

Problem
Issue

Look after
Care

news
information
report

Search
Seek
Look for

Gift
Present

Believe
Hope

See
Look

Hear
Listen

Start
Begin

Speak
Talk

cure
remedy
meditation


Divorce
break up
take part
isolate

make
do

dedicate
devote


watch
see

love
like

repair
fix

carpet
rug

tell
say

autumn
fall

film
movie

ill
sick

cinema
theatre

Class
Grade

flat
apartment

truck
lorry

shop
store

fee
tuition

petrol station
gas station

biscuit
cookie
cracker

die
paint
Underground
subway

book
reserve

toilet
restroom
WC

Tense
Hour
Time
Clock
Watch

Dilemma
Choice

make
prepare



 
Lecture: 7             
Poly semantic

It means several meanings. Also we can say polysyllable. We should know that one word has several meanings. So we should realize and find polysyllable of a word and lexis is so essential in a language. In this case, we must have skills to know to choose and to use polysyllable o lexis. Unless we do it might become miss translation. In the event that we shouldn’t know it will become untrue or false. So we should be good at lexis and vocabulary of source language and target language.
A polysemy is a word or phrase with different, but related senses. Since the test for polysemy is the vague concept of relatedness, judgments of polysemy can be difficult to make. Because applying pre-existing words to new situations is a natural process of language change, looking at words' etymology is helpful in determining polysemy but not the only solution; as words become lost in etymology, what once was a useful distinction of meaning may no longer be so. Some apparently unrelated words share a common historical origin, however, so etymology is not an infallible test for polysemy, and dictionary writers also often defer to speakers' intuitions to judge polysemy in cases where it contradicts etymology. The difference between homonyms and polysemy is subtle. Lexicographers define polysemy within a single dictionary lemma, numbering different meanings, while homonyms are treated in separate lemmas. Semantic shift can separate a polysemous word into separate homonyms. For example, check as in "bank check" (or Cheque), check in chess, and check meaning "verification" are considered homonyms, while they originated as a single word derived from chess in the 14th century. Psycholinguistic experiments have shown that homonyms and polysemy is represented differently within people's mental lexicon: while the different meanings of homonyms (which are semantically unrelated) tend to interfere or compete with each other during comprehension, this does not usually occur for the polysemy that have semantically related meanings
In these examples we can see that living language changes overtime. Also we can say translation is a science and an art.

Minutes- 1.time measure   2.protocol
Book – 1.reading matter   2. reserve and order   3. accounts
Bachelor -1. degree of studies   2.not married man /single man/
Fall (noun) 1. autumn    2. Waterfall
Speaker – 1. talking     2. An Italian / A French speaker      3. Who leads parliament
and organize activity
Iron- 1. metal   2. iron for clothes       3. bat of golf
Rock -1. substance   2. music and songs
Custom -1. excise     2. convention     3. habit     4. patronage
Cold – 1. chilliness    2. flu    3. without preparation 4. Cold War
Saw -  1. ‘’see’’ of past. 2. electric saw
Right - 1.west direction   2. just claim   3. correct    4. whole    5. right angle    6. ready  
    7. Exactly      8. very well     9. righteous – honest  
Miss- 1. woman’s title   2. fail to hit or reach /target/   3. fail to catch or take.
Article- 1. object      2. written     3. definitive / indefinite /partite
Present- 1. gift     2. now     3. attending     4. show   5. introduce
Card – 1. greetings     2. games   
Park-1. public garden     2. stadium (football)    3. parking- space for cars
Box- 1. Carton   2.  Boxing      3. Boxing Day
Interest- 1. desire / enjoying     2. benefit       3. accrued money in bank
Party- 1. soiree     2. political group      3. group
Coach – 1. sport (trainer)      2. train       3. trainer (for drama voice)      4. Tutor
Sight- 1. beautiful places       2. eyes
Cup- 1. goblet      2. bowl
Bowl- 1. cup         2. bowling
Pepper- 1. spice     2. vegetable
Old- 1. year        2. age     3. not new thing
Target- 1. to be right on   2. source language
Turkey- 1. Country      2. large domesticated bird
Polish- 1. Country       2. shine, make glossy (shoes)
Structure- 1. grammar   2. building
Doctor- 1. person who is licensed to practice medicine   2. one who received a doctor's degree from a university
Kind – 1. type, sort    2. gentle, good-hearted
Well- 1. water hole   2. healthy; good    3. excellent   4. interj. so; alright; O.K.
Good- 1. n. excellent   2. merchandise (goods)
Close – 1. near   2. shut                                                                                                                 Mean – 1. n. midpoint, middle, average 2.  v. intend; be significant;    3. adj. avarice
4. (means) something which can be used for benefit or profit
Conductor- 1. person who conducts (an orchestra or other musical ensemble); 2. ticket collector (on a bus, train, etc.);
Composition- 1. something which has been composed (i.e. music);   2. essay  

Lecture: 8
Translation of phrases

An idiom (Latin: idioma, "special property", f. Greek: δίωμα – idiōma, "special feature, special phrasing", f. Greek: διος – idios, "one’s own") is a combination of words that has a figurative meaning, due to its common usage. An idiom's figurative meaning is separate from the literal meaning or definition of the words of which it is made. Idioms are numerous and they occur frequently in all languages. There are estimated to be at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language.
In phraseology, idioms are defined as a sub-type of phraseme, the meaning of which is not the regular sum of the meanings of its component parts. John Saeed defines an idiom as collocated words that became affixed to each other until metamorphosing into a fossilised term. This collocation of words redefines each component word in the word-group and becomes an idiomatic expression. Idioms usually do not translate well; in some cases, when an idiom is translated directly word-for-word into another language, either its meaning is changed or it is meaningless.

Translating idioms

Literal translation (word-by-word) of opaque idioms will not convey the same meaning in other languages. Idioms from other languages that are analogous to kick the bucket in English are listed next:
French: manger des pissenlits par la racine 'to eat dandelions by the root' or casser sa pipe 'to break his pipe' or passer l'arme à gauche 'pass the weapon to the left',
German: den Löffel abgeben 'to give the spoon away' or ins Gras beißen 'to bite into the grass' or sich die Radieschen von unten ansehen 'look at the radishes from undernea’
Greek: τινάζω τα πέταλα 'to shake the horse-shoes'
Italian: tirare le cuoia 'to pull the skins',
Russian: сыграть в ящик (s'igrat' v yaschik) 'to play into the box', дать дуба, откинуть копыта
Finally, in Brazil, the expression chutar o balde 'to kick the bucket' has a completely different meaning: it means 'to give up on a difficult task (since a person coming to the end of their patience might kick a bucket in frustration)'.
Some idioms, in contrast, are transparent. Much of their meaning does get through if they are taken (or translated) literally. For example, lay one's cards on the table meaning to reveal previously unknown intentions, or to reveal a secret. Transparency is a matter of degree; spill the beans (to let secret information become known) and leave no stone unturned (to do everything possible in order to achieve or find something) are not entirely literally interpretable, but only involve a slight metaphorical broadening. Another category of idioms is a word having several meanings, sometimes simultaneously, sometimes discerned from the context of its usage. This is seen in the (mostly un-inflected) English language in polysemes, the common use of the same word for an activity, for those engaged in it, for the product used, for the place or time of an activity, and sometimes for a verb.
Idioms tend to confuse those unfamiliar with them; students of a new language must learn its idiomatic expressions as vocabulary. Many natural language words have idiomatic origins, but are assimilated, so losing their figurative senses, for example, in Portuguese, the expression saber de coração 'to know by heart', with the same meaning as in English, was shortened to 'saber de cor', and, later, to the verb decorar, meaning memorize.


Lecture: 9
Phrasal verbs

Phrasal verb that is joined with another word (such as a verb followed by a preposition, adverb)
The phrasal verb is commonly applied to two or three distinct but related constructions in English: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition co-occur forming a single semantic unit. This semantic unit cannot be understood based upon the meanings of the individual parts in isolation, but rather it must be taken as a whole. In other words, the meaning is non-compositional and thus unpredictable. Phrasal verbs that include a preposition are known as prepositional verbs and phrasal verbs that include a particle are also known as particle verbs. Additional alternative terms for phrasal verb are compound verb, verb-adverb combination, verb-particle construction, two-part word/verb, and three-part word/verb (depending on the number of particles), and multi-word verb. One can discern at least three main types of phrasal verb constructions depending upon whether the verb combines with a preposition, a particle, or both. The words constituting the phrasal verb constructions in the following examples are in bold:
Verb + preposition (prepositional phrasal verbs)
a. Who is looking after the kids? – after is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase after the kids.
b. They pick on Joseph. – on is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase on Joseph.
c. I ran into an old friend. – into is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase into an old friend.
d. She takes after her mother. – after is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase after her mother.
e. Sam passes for a linguist. – for is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase for a linguist.
f. You should stand by your friend. – by is a preposition that introduces the prepositional phrase by your friend.
Verb + particle (particle phrasal verbs)
a. They brought that up twice. – up is a particle, not a preposition.
b. You should think it over. – over is a particle, not a preposition.
c. Why does he always dress down? – down is a particle, not a preposition.
d. You should not give in so quickly. – in is a particle, not a preposition.
e. Where do they want to hang out? – out is a particle, not a preposition.
f. She handed it in. – in is a particle, not a preposition.
Verb + particle + preposition (particle-prepositional phrasal verbs)
a. Who can put up with that? – up is a particle and with is a preposition.
b. She is looking forward to a rest. – forward is a particle and to is a preposition.
c. The other tanks were bearing down on my panther. – down is a particle and on is a preposition.
d. They were really teeing off on me. – off is a particle and on is a preposition.
e. We loaded up on Mountain Dew and chips. – up is a particle and on is a preposition
f. Susan has been sitting in for me. – in is a particle and for is a preposition.
The difference between these types of phrasal verbs lies with the status of the element(s) that appear in addition to the verb. When the element is a preposition, it is the head of a full prepositional phrase and the phrasal verb is a thus a prepositional phrasal verb. When the element is a particle, it cannot (or no longer) be construed as a preposition, but rather it is a particle by virtue of the fact that it does not take a complement. Finally, many phrasal verbs are combined with both a preposition and a particle. The meaning of the two or more words together is often drastically different from what one might guess it to be based upon the meanings of the individual parts in isolation.
As a class, particle phrasal verbs belong to the same category as the so-called separable verbs of other Germanic languages. They are commonly found in everyday, informal speech as opposed to more formal English and Latinate verbs, such as to get together rather than to congregate, to put off rather than to postpone (or to deter), or to do up rather than to fasten.

Lecture: 10
Preposition and Conjunction

The preposition is a structural part of speech that denotes relations between things and phenomenon.
For example;  a reason (for)                 on business
           
            depend (on)                   of the two
                        similar (to)                      for him
             
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:
The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.  
The book is beside the table.
She held the book over the table.
She read the book during class.
In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.
A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."
For example;
The children climbed the mountain without fear.
In this sentence, prepositions "without" introduce the noun "fear." The prepositional phrase "without fear" functions as an adverb describing how the children climbed.
There was rejoicing throughout the land when the government was defeated.
Here, the preposition "throughout" introduces the noun phrase "the land." The prepositional phrase acts as an adverb describing the location of the rejoicing.
The spider crawled slowly along the banister.
The preposition "along" introduces the noun phrase "the banister" and the prepositional phrase "along the banister" acts as an adverb, describing where the spider crawled.
The dog is hiding under the porch because it knows it will be punished for chewing up a new pair of shoes.
Here the preposition "under" introduces the prepositional phrase "under the porch," which acts as an adverb modifying the compound verb "is hiding."
The screenwriter searched for the manuscript he was certain was somewhere in his office.
Prepositions are a grammatically distinct class of words whose most central members characteristically express spatial relations (such as the English words in, under, toward) or serve to mark various syntactic functions and semantic roles (such as the English words of, for).  In that the primary function is relational, a preposition typically combines with another constituent to form a prepositional phrase, relating the complement to the context in which the phrase occurs.
The word preposition comes from Latin, a language in which such a word is usually placed before its complement. English is another such language. In many languages(e.g. Urdu, Turkish, Hindi, Korean and Japanese), the words with this grammatical function come after, not before, the complement. Such words are then commonly called post positions. Similarly, circum-positions consist of two parts that appear on both sides of the complement. The technical term used to refer collectively to prepositions, postpositions, and circum-positions is preposition. Some linguists use the word "preposition" instead of "apposition" for all three cases.
Some examples of English prepositions as used in phrases are:
  • as an adjunct (locative, temporal, etc.) to a {noun} (marked within curly brackets)
    • the {weather} in May
    • {cheese} from France with live bacteria
  • as an adjunct (locative, temporal, etc.) to a {verb}
    • {sleep} throughout the winter
    • {danced} atop the tables for hours
  • as an adjunct (locative, temporal, etc.) to an {adjective}
    • {happy} for them
    • {sick} until recently

Conjunctions
In grammar, a conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, sentences, phrases or clauses together. A discourse connective is a conjunction joining sentences. This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what constitutes a "conjunction" must be defined for each language. In general, a conjunction is an invariable grammatical particle, and it may or may not stand between the items it conjoins.
The definition may also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same single-word conjunction (as well as, provided that, etc.).
Many students are taught that certain conjunctions (such as "and", "but", and "so") should not begin sentences, although authorities such as the Chicago Manual of Style state that this teaching has "no historical or grammatical foundation".

Classifications;

Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions, also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join two or more items of equal syntactic importance, such as words, main clauses, or sentences. In English the mnemonic acronym FANBOYS can be used to remember the coordinators for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. These are not the only coordinating conjunctions; various others are used, including" and nor" (British), "but nor" (British), "or nor" (British), "neither" ("They don't gamble; neither do they smoke"), "no more" ("They don't gamble; no more do they smoke"), and "only" ("I would go, only I don't have time").
Here are some examples of coordinating conjunctions in English and what they do:
for - presents a reason ("He is gambling with his health, for he has been smoking far too long.").
and - presents non-contrasting item(s) or idea(s) ("They gamble, and they smoke.").
nor - presents a non-contrasting negative idea ("They do not gamble nor do they smoke.").
but - presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, but they don't smoke.").
or - presents an alternative item or idea ("Every day they gamble or they smoke.").
yet - presents a contrast or exception ("They gamble, yet they don't smoke.").
so - presents a consequence ("He gambled well last night so he smoked a cigar to celebrate.").

Correlative conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions work in pairs to join words and groups of words of equal weight in a sentence. There are six different pairs of correlative conjunctions:
  1. either...or
  2. not only...but (also)
  3. neither...nor (or increasingly neither...or)
  4. both...and
  5. whether...or
  6. just as...so
Examples:
  • You either do your work or prepare for a trip to the office.
  • Not only is he handsome, but he is also brilliant.
  • Neither the basketball team nor the football team is doing well.
  • Both the cross country team and the swimming team are doing well.
  • Whether you stay or you go, it's your decision.
  • Just as Aussies love Aussie rules football, so many Canadians love ice hockey.

Subordinating conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions, also called subordinators, are helpful in writing paragraphs with an independent clause and a dependent clause. The most common subordinating conjunctions in the English language include after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, and while. Complementizers can be considered to be special subordinating conjunctions that introduce complement clauses (e.g., "I wonder whether he'll be late. I hope that he'll be on time"). Some subordinating conjunctions (until and while), when used to introduce a phrase instead of a full clause, become prepositions with identical meanings.
In many verb-final languages, subordinate clauses must precede the main clause on which they depend. The equivalents to the subordinating conjunctions of non-verb-final languages such as English are either
  • clause-final conjunctions (e.g., in Japanese), or
  • suffixes attached to the verb and not separate words
Such languages in fact often lack conjunctions as a part of speech because:
  1. the form of the verb used is formally nominalised and cannot occur in an independent clause
  2. the clause-final conjunction or suffix attached to the verb is actually formally a marker of case and is also used on nouns to indicate certain functions. In this sense, the subordinate clauses of these languages have much in common with postpositional phrases
Lecture: 11
Translation of terms

Terminology is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words that in specific contexts are given specific meanings, meanings that may deviate from the meaning the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language. The discipline Terminology studies among other things how such terms of art come to be and their interrelationships within a culture. Terminology differs from lexicography in studying concepts, conceptual systems, and their labels (terms), whereas lexicography study words and their meanings.
Terminology is a discipline which systematically studies the labelling or designating of concepts particular to one or more subject fields or domains of human activity. It does this through research and analysis of terms in context for the purpose of documenting and promoting consistent usage.
The classic example of someone in need of a terminology is a translator. We have barrier of translating for kinds of professional terms that includes; linguistics, politics, health, finance, mining and so one.  For a long period of time technical translators have developed word lists for translation purposes.
Most lists contain two columns, the first consisting of terms in the source language and right next to it in the second column the corresponding term in the target language appears. These lists are widely used in translation departments of companies to enable translators to find matching terms in the target language. This is necessary to lower the costs the translating manuals containing technical expressions that are in general neither part of the translator's active nor within his passive vocabulary.
Terms means terminus- limited sign in Latin. One word is used become term many several branches of science and also used several words. For instance;
Operatio is Latin words. That means ‘’activity’’.
English- operation
French- operation
German- operation
Spanish- operacion
Russian - операция
This term can be used ‘’function’’ in medicine, ‘’activity’’ in finance, ‘’fighting activity’’ in soldier’s science and so one. If terminology translation, we don’t track formal terms of standards from the state research organization. So translator; to do translation, to do not mistranslation, need have knowledge of science the branches.

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