Saturday, March 23, 2013


Politics of Mongolia

Politics of Mongolia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Political developments
From shortly after the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921 until 1990, the Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system; only the communist party––the MPRP––officially was permitted to function. After some instability during the first two decades of communist rule in Mongolia, there was no significant popular unrest until December 1989. Collectivization of animal husbandry, introduction of agriculture, and the extension of fixed abodes were all carried out without perceptible popular opposition.
The birth of perestroika in the former Soviet Union and the democracy movement in Eastern Europe were mirrored in Mongolia. The dramatic shift toward reform started in early 1990 when the first organized opposition group, the Mongolian Democratic Union, appeared. In the face of extended street protests in subzero weather and popular demands for faster reform, the politburo of the MPRP resigned in March 1990. In May, the constitution was amended, deleting reference to the MPRP's role as the guiding force in the country, legalizing opposition parties, creating a standing legislative body, and establishing the office of president.

Mongolia's first multi-party elections for a People's Great Khural were held on 29 July 1990. The MPRP won 85% of the seats. The People's Great Khural first met on 3 September and elected a president (MPRP), vice president (SDP—Social Democrats), Prime Minister (MPRP), and 50 members to the Baga Khural (small Khural). The vice president also was chairman of the Baga Khural. In November 1991, the People's Great Khural began discussion on a new constitution, which entered into force February 12. In addition to establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral legislature, the State Great Khural (SGKh).
The 1992 constitution provided that the president would be elected by popular vote rather than by the legislature as before. In June 1993, incumbent Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat won the first popular presidential election running as the candidate of the democratic opposition.

Mongolia's Parliament in session the supreme government organ, the SGKh is empowered to enact and amend laws, determine domestic and foreign policy, ratify international agreements, and declare a state of emergency. The SGKh meets semiannually. SGKh members elect a chairman and vice chairman who serve 4-year terms. SGKh members are popularly elected by district for 4-year terms.
Until June 27, 2004, the predominant party in Mongolia was the ex-communist party Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP. The main opposition party was the Democratic Party or DP, which controlled a governing coalition from 1996 to 2000.
From 2000 to 2004 MPRP was back in power, but results of the 2004 elections required the establishing of the first ever coalition government in Mongolia between the MPRP and MDC (Motherland Democratic Coalition).
In January 2006, MP Tsogtyn Bataa changed sides from the Motherland Party to the MRPR, giving the latter exactly 50% of the seats. This gave the MPRP the opportunity to withdraw from the coalition, and, with support of several small parties and defectors from the Democratic party, elect Miyeegombyn Enkhbold as the new prime minister. The events triggered strong protests from civic groups and their followers. Individuals and organizations raised concerns that the government change might have been unconstitutional, but no specific violations could be shown. In April 2006, Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj was elected as a Democratic Party chairman by the two step elections of the party.
The MPRP won a clear majority (46 of 76 seats) in legislative elections on June 29, 2008. The Democrats (DP) won 27 seats with the three remaining seats going to minor parties and an independent. After intermediate results were published on July 30, DP chairman Elbegdorj declared that the elections were rigged and that his party would not accept the results. Protests against the election results turned violent on the evening of July 1, and protesters sacked the MPRP headquarters in downtown Ulaanbaatar. Five protesters were killed, and around midnight a four-day state of emergency was declared.
In 2010, Nambaryn Enkhbayar split the former Communist party after it reverted to its pre-revolution name, the Mongolian People's Party. The new faction retained the previous name, Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. After parliamentary elections in 2012, the MPRP, which ran in the elections as the Justice Coalition with a smaller party, formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party.

Executive branch

The presidential candidates are nominated by parties in the State Great Khural and from these candidates the president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term. The president is the head of state, commander in chief of the armed forces, and head of the national security council. He is popularly elected by a national majority for a 4-year term and limited to two terms. The constitution empowers the president to propose a prime minister, call for the government's dissolution, initiate legislation, veto all or parts of legislation (the State Great Khural can override the veto with a two-thirds majority), and issue decrees, which become effective with the prime minister's signature. In the absence, incapacity, or resignation of the president, the SGKh chairman exercises presidential power until inauguration of a newly elected president.
The government, headed by the prime minister, has a 4-year term. The prime minister is nominated by the president and confirmed by the SGKh. The prime minister chooses a cabinet, subject to State Great Khural approval. The Cabinet consists of thirteen ministries.[9] Dissolution of the government occurs upon the prime minister's resignation, simultaneous resignation of half the cabinet, or after a State Great Khural vote for dissolution.
The MPRP and a coalition of opposition parties currently rule in a national unity coalition after they both got the same number of seats in 2004. In July 2005 the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) announced a unilateral end to the Grand Coalition Government, and that it was assuming the full power of government. After a series of negotiations, the MPRP elected to allow the government of Prime Minister Ts. Elbegdorj to remain in power until August 2006, when Deputy Prime Minister Ulaan is schedule to take the Prime Ministership for the remaining two years of the term.

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